Figures of speech that Hardy use include anaphora, which is when the same word or words at the beginning of a line are repeated in consecutive lines. This occurs at the beginning of the poem, when "Not a" is repeated twice:
Not a line of her writing have I
Not a thread of her hair.
Another figure of speech is metaphor or comparison. Hardy uses a metaphor when he calls his dead cousin "my lost prize" and later when he refers to his memory of her as a "phantom" and a "relic."
Hardy also employs alliteration, which is when words beginning with the same consonant are placed close together, such as in "forebodings, or fears." He likewise uses assonance, which occurs when words starting with the same vowel are placed near each other, as in "enray and enarch." Words such as "enray," "enarch," and "haply" are also examples of archaic or little used language. They capture our attention and slow down our reading. In the term "aureate nimb," Hardy uses an archaic image of a glowing rainbow to describe his cousin's talents and kindness.
Hardy employs refrain or repetition when he repeats the lines:
No mark of her late time as dame in her dwelling, whereby
I may picture her there.
Sound devices include an abab pattern of end rhymes, with rhyming words such as "hair" and "there" and "prize" and "eyes" creating a pleasing sense of rhythm. Further, the repeated use of words beginning with "no" or "un" sounds create a sound sensation of negation, absence, and loss.