What are the equator, tropics, Arctic and Antarctic lines, and what is their importance?

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The equator is a line of latitude that divides the Earth into its northern and southern hemispheres. It is defined as 0°of latitude. There are two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer at 23°26ʹ north of the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn at 23°26ʹ south of the equator. These degrees correspond with the tilt of the Earth on its axis and correspond with the limits of the declination of the Sun as seen from Earth. Therefore, the latitudes between the tropics receive direct sunlight throughout the year.

The Arctic and Antarctic lines are found at 66°33′48.5″ north and south, respectively. Between these lines and the poles are the two polar circles. Within the polar circles, there are days when the sun never sets during the summer and never rises during the winter.

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