Social deviance is used to classify an action or behavior that strays from accepted cultural norms. Social deviance differs between cultures, and an action may be classified as deviant in one culture while simultaneously being acceptable in another culture. This idea can apply to either specific laws or cultural actions that are not illegal.
Rational choice describes a method for modeling social and economic behavior. The idea here is that macro social behaviors exist due to supporting and aligned individual behaviors. This concept also introduces the idea that humans are rational beings, so there are inferences and predictions than can be gleaned from behavioral trends.
Realism is the idea that the world, with all the objects that exist within it, is both separate and independent from the mind. Proponents of the theory contend that the connection between the mind and the world creates reality. Since humans have a hand in creating reality, the reality of today is an approximation of actual reality, and that reality will change over time and between cultures.
Constructivism is a study in human education and development. The theory contends that the learner has prior knowledge and prior experiences which are used to “construct” learnings. As such, two people with drastically different upbringings and prior experiences will construct different learnings. This idea plays into the relativism associated with realism.