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What are the causes of tetany, osteoporosis, and rickets?

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This is technically more than one question. I'll answer about rickets and osteoporosis.

Rickets is a medical condition that results in the softening and weakening of bones in children. The most common cause of rickets is extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiencies. Vitamin D is the vitamin that helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorous from food sources. Without the vitamin D (or low vitamin D amounts), the body finds it difficult to maintain adequate levels of phosphorous and calcium in the bones. This results in...

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