What are teaching approaches (including some examples)?
There are myriad teaching approaches, so it is difficult—if not impossible—to determine the ideal approach to pedagogy. One way to examine this question is to consider a couple of ways that languages have been taught over the centuries and then look at a more modern alternative.
One of the oldest approaches used is the Grammar-Translation Method. This traditional way of teaching has the instructor at the center of the classroom as an authority figure. Language-learning is good mental exercise which helps develop minds. Students memorize grammar rules. Almost all the classroom interaction is from the teacher to the students.
A second and more recent way to teach languages is the Audio-Lingual Method. Learning is achieved through good habit formation and repetition. Student errors lead to bad habits, and the teacher rewards good habits by using positive reinforcement. Drills are of paramount importance. Students over-learn key concepts.
My approach to teaching could best be described as...
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- Socio-cultural perspective
- Rigorous philosophical perspective
From the socio-cultural perspective, the teaching approaches can be classified based on the types of -
If the students are children, most of whom are unable to form relevant independent opinions, the method of teaching can be instructive. On contrary, in lectures where there is tendency to allow the students to form their own inference by simply presenting the information, the method of teaching can be interactive; here, the teaching approach is in the form of questions & answers where the teacher asks the questions and from the answers given by the students the lesson will progress by rectifying the contradictions, fallacies, inaccuracies of the answer and by illustrating the relevance of the question & answer to the subsequent topic.
In mathematics, all the statements and theorems are taught rigorously since they are strictly definitive. On contrary, the English poems are taught in such a way that, students are able comprehend that a poem can be read in different ways, as intended by the author; here, the robustness in teaching approach is encouraged.
For teaching few students, the method of teaching can be determined on the basis of individual characteristics of student(s). On contrary, for teaching a large number of students, the individual characteristics of students cannot be relied on; because larger the number of students, more the variation in individual characteristics. Instead, the teacher can design a general method by analysing the students so that the subject is easily comprehended by the maximum number of students as possible.
From rigorous philosophical perspective, there are two fundamental teaching approaches:
Induction is the progressive approach, where the student was taught the fundamental basics of the subject and thenceforth, the subject which has been taught, progresses in difficulty and applications. For example, in mathematics, students were taught numbers & arithmetic and then progressively have been taught the advanced topics.
Deduction is the divisive approach. Here, the subject is taught by starting from examples. An example which the students are familiar with in their daily life is selectively taken by the teacher and he divides the example to its fundamental components; thenceforth, the properties of the fundamental components will be taught.