What are teaching approaches (including some examples)?
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There are myriad teaching approaches, so it is difficult—if not impossible—to determine the ideal approach to pedagogy. One way to examine this question is to consider a couple of ways that languages have been taught over the centuries and then look at a more modern alternative.
One of the oldest approaches used is the Grammar-Translation Method. This traditional way of teaching has the instructor at the center of the classroom as an authority figure. Language-learning is good mental exercise which helps develop minds. Students memorize grammar rules. Almost all the classroom interaction is...
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calendarEducator since 2015
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Perspectives
- Socio-cultural perspective
- Rigorous philosophical perspective
From the socio-cultural perspective, the teaching approaches can be classified based on the types of -
- Learner(s)
- Topic
- Context
Contrasting Example
If the students are children, most of whom are unable to form relevant independent opinions, the method of teaching can be instructive. On contrary, in lectures where there is tendency to allow the students to form their own inference by simply presenting the information, the method of teaching can be interactive; here, the teaching approach is in the form of questions & answers where the teacher asks the questions and from the answers given by the students the lesson will progress by rectifying the contradictions, fallacies, inaccuracies of the answer and by illustrating the relevance of the question & answer to the subsequent topic.
In mathematics, all the statements and theorems are taught rigorously since they are strictly definitive. On contrary, the English poems are taught in such a way that, students are able comprehend that a poem can be read in different ways, as intended by the author; here, the robustness in teaching approach is encouraged.
For teaching few students, the method of teaching can be determined on the basis of individual characteristics of student(s). On contrary, for teaching a large number of students, the individual characteristics of students cannot be relied on; because larger the number of students, more the variation in individual characteristics. Instead, the teacher can design a general method by analysing the students so that the subject is easily comprehended by the maximum number of students as possible.
From rigorous philosophical perspective, there are two fundamental teaching approaches:
- Induction
- Deduction
Induction is the progressive approach, where the student was taught the fundamental basics of the subject and thenceforth, the subject which has been taught, progresses in difficulty and applications. For example, in mathematics, students were taught numbers & arithmetic and then progressively have been taught the advanced topics.
Deduction is the divisive approach. Here, the subject is taught by starting from examples. An example which the students are familiar with in their daily life is selectively taken by the teacher and he divides the example to its fundamental components; thenceforth, the properties of the fundamental components will be taught.
Giving timely feedback is a teaching approach that helps the learner identify strengths and weaknesses. Giving timely feedback to learners comes in a variety of ways. An example is giving descriptive remarks that display learners mistakes and recommendations for improvement. Placing an emphasis on time for a task, is a teaching approach that assists the learner with time management. An example is transparent communication to learners about the minimum amount of time they should spend on tasks. Inspiration of alive learning is a teaching approach. An example would be to ask learners to relate what they have learned to something in real life. Dignifying different talents and means of learning is a teaching approach. An example is providing extra material or activities for students who lack significant background knowledge or skills.
With the inference that this question asks for the explanation of the phrase - teaching methods, I provide answers in two different perspectives.
- Teaching Methods - as defined by socio-cultural studies.
- Teaching Methods - as defined by rigorous philosophy.
By the socio-cultural definition of the phrase – teaching methods, it is the methodology of teaching practices which are established and orthodox. And as such, the teaching practices differ on three most important factors:
- the learner
- the topic
- the context
I will explain all the three factors by providing contrasting examples.
For teaching children, most of whom are unable to form independent opinion, the method of teaching can be instructive. On contrary, in a corporate training where there is tendency to allow the learners to build their own inference by simply presenting the information, the method of teaching can be of discussion and presentation.
For teaching mathematics, every statement given should be well defined and accurate. On contrary, a poem should be taught in such a way that, students could comprehend that the poem can be read in different ways.
For teaching few students, the method of teaching can be determined on the basis of characteristics of students. For teaching a large number of students, the method of teaching can be determined on the basis of characteristics of the teacher, since large number of students consequently exhibit higher variation of characteristics.
By the rigorous philosophical definition, teaching is passive learning. The learning can be of two methods:
- induction
- deduction
The more systematic and progressive approach is induction, where the learner is taught the fundamental basics and from thenceforth, is taught the increasing - variations, complexity, patterns, exceptions and usability. For instance, a child learns the numbers and arithmetic before progressively learning advanced mathematical topics.
But, it is impossible to learn all the topics from the very basics in a progressive order. For instance, to learn the collective noun inductively one should know very well the topic - referential noun, which is more fundamental. But referential noun is too advanced to teach a beginner and given the importance of collective noun, a teacher can select some obvious examples with which he can easily teach the different types and characteristics of the collective noun. This method of studying a topic by selecting an important and recurring sentence and breaking down the sentence into its fundamental components and thereby studying the properties of the fundamentals which consequently determines the property of the topic, is deduction.
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