For generations, the Znaeyms and the von Gradwitzes have treated the natural environment as if it were nothing more than a piece of property. Readers never get any sense that these two feuding families appreciate this part of the world for its extraordinary beauty or value it for its own sake. Instead, this relatively small plot of land has been the basis for a centuries-long feud arising out of a petty legal dispute.
In short, the natural world has been treated with something less than respect. And there's no sign that either Georg Znaeym or Ulrich von Gradwitz are going to adopt a different attitude to the environment than their warring predecessors. On the contrary, they seem wholly committed to keeping this feud going for as long as possible, with all the consequences that that entails for the local environment.
One can see the end of the story as symbolizing the theme of “nature strikes back.” Nature has been disrespected by these two feuding families for generations—but no more. In the form of a pack of ravenous wolves, it gets its revenge on the hapless Georg and Ulrich. The irony here is that, just before the wolves descend, Georg and Ulrich had agreed to bury the hatchet. But this was all too little, too late. Nature needs to reassert its control, and in the shape of these starving wolves, it does just that.