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What are some effective points to include in a thesis about high school dropouts? I am gathering statistics on high school dropouts.

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A good starting point would be to decide whether you are going to study cause or effect. A thesis that attempts to deal with both is likely to be too vague and difficult to substantiate.

Reasons for dropping out of high school

Depending on the depth and breadth of your sample, you may be able to examine the incidence of particular reasons people give for the decision to drop out of high school. Reasons might include a desire to get a job and make money immediately, a decision that the curriculum is irrelevant/unsuited to their needs, a lack of aptitude for academic study, illness, family trouble, or many other factors. You could also look at the correlation of matters such as race, social class, gender, or family income (bearing in mind that correlation does not equal causation, a strong correlation might be highly suggestive).

Effects of dropping out of high school

A thesis under this heading would examine people who have dropped out of high school and compare them with their contemporaries who graduated using such metrics as employment, field of employment, income, socio-economic class, or other factors. A popular method of determining the value of an education used in studies like the one attached below from the Social Security Administration is to calculate the difference in median lifetime earnings between people with differing levels of education. You could apply this method to people who drop out of high school compared with those who graduate.

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