What are major figurative language techniques in the poem "If—" by Rudyard Kipling, and what do they mean?

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This is such an incredible poem about how to live one's life, and it contains some great figurative language to create a tone of encouragement. Here are a few examples:


The repetition of "If you can" at the beginning of many lines serves as a reminder of what is possible. It is not easy to be lied about and "not deal in lies." It is difficult to "trust yourself when all men doubt you." But by using anaphora in this key phrase, the reader is provided with hope for difficult circumstances.


The speaker personifies Triumph and Disaster, noting that they are both "impostors." His takeaway here is that both victory...

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