The poem "Black Woman" has lots of literary devices. For example there is repetition of the line "Naked woman, black woman" throughout the poem, although twice, there is a slight variation as "black" becomes "dark." The repetition of this line emphasizes the pride and beauty of the African woman.
There is also a metaphor in the third stanza, when the speaker says, "In your shadow I have grown up." The speaker has not literally grown up in the shadow of the speaker, but this metaphor helps to convey the idea that the speaker is in awe of the woman and the country that she personifies.
The woman addressed in the poem is the personification of Africa. Representing Africa as a beautiful, proud woman implies that Africa is likewise beautiful and proud.
In the fourth stanza, there is an example of a simile, as the speaker says that the woman's beauty strikes his heart "like the flash of an eagle." An eagle is a beautiful but also predatory bird, suggesting that the woman's beauty is not necessarily soft and gentle but rather fierce and independent.
There is also onomatopoeia in the poem when the speaker describes the music of Africa. He describes the "tom-tom, taut tom-tom, muttering." The repetition of the letter "t" implies a low but constant percussive rhythm.