The Monk: A Romance by Matthew Gregory Lewis was published in 1796 and is widely considered a significant exemplar of the Gothic genre.
The first Gothic element of the novel is its setting. For its English readers, the Capuchin monastery in Madrid would be an exotic locale. Both the Roman Catholic and Spanish setting add the classic elements of exotic and alien setting that allow the author to create a melodramatic plot that might not be credible in a familiar setting of London or an English village. Making the evil Ambrose a Roman Catholic tied in to anti-Catholic prejudice in the period, making his villainy more credible that would have been the case if the villain had been an English vicar.
The second Gothic element is the supernatural, including the presence of evil magic and demonic influences, with Ambrose signing away his soul to the Devil who states:
Here is your bond signed with blood; you have given up your claim to mercy, and nothing can restore to you the rights which you have so foolishly resigned.
A third Gothic element is emotional intensity, with characters experiencing strong, even violent emotions, sustained at a high pitch throughout the novel. An example of this in dialogue is:
You are the destroyer of my Soul; You are my Murderer, and on you fall the curse of my death and my unborn Infant’s!
A final characteristic is that the novel is macabre and morbid, with rape, murder, and kidnapping among the plot elements.