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Moses is the most important figure in the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, often known as the Five Books of Moses. He led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt. He received the Torah from God at Mount Sinai. He led the people through their forty years of wandering in the desert prior to entering the Promised Land.
After the Hebrews entered Canaan (the Promised Land) under the leadership of Joshua, Moses's disciple, in approximately 1200 B.C.E., the Hebrews formed a loose confederation. That is, there was no central government, but at times of crisis, leaders arose to defend the people from enemies. These leaders were called Shoftim, which translates roughly as Judges. Some of the better-known Judges were Deborah, Gideon, Jepthah, Samson, and Samuel. The Israelites were ruled by the Judges for app. 1,000 years.
In app. 1,000 B.C.E., the Israelite tribes were united under the rulership of their first King, Saul. For app. the next 400 years, the Israelites were ruled by a succession of kings. They include: David, Solomon, Jehoshaphat, Ahaz, Hezekia, Ahab.
Although there were prophets even in the days of the Judges, the prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible deal mostly with those prophets who lived during the reigns of the Kings. One of the main jobs of a prophet was to guide the King in righteous behavior, and to rebuke him when he strayed. The prophets also guided and rebuked the people at-large and warned them that improper behavior could lead to national destruction. Some of the prophets are: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Nathan, Obadiah, Elijah, Jonah.
Moses is very significant because he is the one who led the Jews out of slavery from the Egyptians. He is also the one who unleashed the deadly plagues on the Egyptians. Moses was found as an infant by the daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh. She adopted him and he was raised as an Egyptian.
Judges are significant from Deuteronomy to 2 Kings. It signifies the time of the tribes after they settled in Canaan but before they were all united together. Judges are important because they are who God chose to fight the enemies of the people.
According to eNotes here is the proper definition of a prophet:
What is a prophet?
A prophet is a person who speaks for God, under divine guidance. Prophets have played major roles in such revealed religions—those made known to followers through divine actions—as Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
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