What is an example of personification in Sonnet 18?
I can add a couple more examples to the previous answers if it will help.
Of course the entire sonnet creates the idea that all the elements of nature share human characteristics which can be compared to the speaker's love. To the examples already discussed I can add some less literal examples.
In line 2, the speaker uses the word "temperate." While this word does refer to the climate of a region, it also can define a personality type that features restraint and moderation, belonging to a person who is not prone to tantrums, violence, or even unexpected mood swings. Here, the speaker is suggesting that his love is less extreme than the summer day, which may switch quickly between mild mornings, extremely hot afternoon temperatures and violent evening storms. This word is an interesting one which can refer to climate or to an individual.
In line 4, the speaker references "summer's lease" to refer to the duration of time that summer exists. The term "lease" is a human concept which indicates an amount of time that a person may occupy a house, apartment, or even a car. The speaker is making the comment that summer does not stay all year, but his true love will be in his life all year long and forever.
Personification is the attribution of human characteristics to things that are non-human. In this sonnet, we see the personification of natural forces.
The use of the adjective 'darling' to describe the plants in May is an example of personification. This kind of adjective is more usually applied to people. Even the image of the 'rough winds' that shake the plants could be regarded as personification to a degree, as it comes across rather as though the winds are deliberately shaking the plants, as a person might.
An obvious example of personification is that of the sun, referred to obliquely as 'the eye of heaven' and said to have a 'gold complexion'. Also, personification here is evident with the use of the word 'his', instead of 'its'.
Death, an abstract noun, is also personified here with the use of 'his', and the image of death 'bragging' about claiming the life of the beloved.
The sonnet itself 'lives', according to the poet, as though it were a person.
Overall, we may observe that the season of summer is also being personified in a way, as it is invoked as a point of comparison with the poet's beloved.
The sonnet goes like this:
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
The idea of the sun having a "gold complexion" (line 6) is personification, as is the idea that death can brag about the reader wandering in his shade (line 11). In addition, the final line, referring to the sonnet having life is also personification.
Another example of personification is "eye of heaven." Just wanted to add that one. :-)