Importance Of Enzymes
What is an enzyme and how are enzymes important in living organisms?
Enzymes play the main role of catalysis. they are activators.
Inhibitor stopes the reaction where as activator activtes the reaction and make the reaction to move forward by increaseing the rate of the rection that is decreasing the activation energy.
Enzymes are mainly proteins, it is said that all enzymes are proteins but all proteins are not enzymes. Enzymes are also called as biocatalyst.
They are globular in shape
They are very specific to there substrated (Lock and key mechanism theory)
Enzyme activity is affected by substrate concentration, temperature, PH and inhibitors.
They have active site where the substrate bindes.
They need cofactores to perform complete function.
There are various classes of Enzymes they are
Examples of Exzymes...
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Enzymes are organic catalysts which aid in facilitating chemical reactions in the body. Enzymes are needed for metabolic pathways in the body, respiration, digestion and other important life processes. When enzymes function properly, homeostasis is maintained. However, if an enzyme is lacking or has an incorrect shape due to a genetic mutation, this can lead to disease within an organism. An example of this is the disease phenylketonuria or PKU. It is an autosomal recessive disorder which involves a gene mutation in the gene for the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase(PAH). This enzyme is part of a metabolic pathway in which the amino acid phenylalanine is converted to tyrosine. In the person with PKU disease, they have an enzyme that is defective and the activity is reduced. Therefore, phenylalanine accumulates and is converted to phenylpyruvate, which is found in the urine. It also builds up in the brain, leading to mental retardation and brain damage. By restricting the person's intake of protein, which contains phenylalanine, the person can have a normal life span and mental development. This is but one example of the many enzymes which have very necessary and specific functions in the body.
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Enzymes are among the most essential molecules that are found within the cells of the living organisms or as one of their secretions.
Basically an enzyme is a molecule that's precisely designed to interact with a specific molecule "substrate" through its atomic arrangement;the charged atoms in the enzyme usually interact with the charged ones in the substrate in a very specific way in a very specific order which is the reason behind the specific enzymatic action and function of each enzyme.
Hence,almost most of the chemical reactions necessarily for cellular process,metabolism,and even extra cellular reactions such food digestion in the gastrointestinal tract (like trypsine which aids in the breakdown of protein prior to absorbtion) ,or the bacterial digestion (such as cellulase which breaks down the cellulose which is the key structural component in most of the plant species and aids the ruminants in roughage digestions through their ruminal bacteria as most animals can't produce it).
The catabolic action of enzymes is often carried out as mentioned above as its interaction with the substrate forces it into a particular position in which the bonded atoms at the site of breakdown have higher interactions with other atoms ;such as hydrogen atom and stop binding to each other and thus the molecule is broken down at a specific site.
these were a few examples of enzymatic activities they also build or anabolize essential molecules in a similar manner ,or join two or more molecules together to speed their interaction ; and thus no biological system can function without them.