alliteration: the repetition of consonant sounds. For example, the first two lines of the poem focus on the m sound. The fourth stanza focuses on the f sound.
connotation: implied meaning of a word. Example - "sleep."
figurative language: does not mean exactly what it says; metaphors, similes, personification, hyperbole, etc. Example - "Like ghosts, the shadows rise and fall!"
imagery: detailed descriptions that connect to the senses. Example - "An opiate vapor, dewy, dim . . ."
personification: animals, ideas, objects are given human qualities. Example - "The rosemary nods . . ."
refrain: repeated part of a poem. Example - forms of the word "sleep" are repeated.