The principal causes of water pollution are release of undesirable and hazardous substances into water resources from the following origins:
1. Biodegradable sewage wastes
2. Industrial wastes
3. Petroleum spillage
4. Solid wastes
5. Radiation pollution from accidental spillage or from nuclear waste disposal in seas
6. Thermal pollution caused by industrial effluent water
7. Pathogens from various sources
8. Fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural activities
9. Dissolved minerals, salts and toxic chemicals such as arsenic, fluoride and heavy metals.
10. Soaps and detergents from domestic and laundry usage
11. Air pollution settling on water.
Effects of water pollution:
Most populations are centered around major waterbodies and waterways. Hence water pollution takes its toll directly (and often latently, through a long course of time) on human and the environment, in numerous ways:
1. Drinking and using polluted water has its direct impact on the health and longevity of the affected population.
2. Pollution of water resources can interfere with swimming and fishing activities, make boating unsafe.
3. Affect wildlife
4. Affect vegetation
5. Affect food resources
Truly, “When the well’s dry, we know the worth of water”.