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DNA replication is a process of duplication of a copy of a DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms in which it is used for metabolic function of every organism as a whole. The evolution of DNA replication has considered the following advantages:
- It is semiconservative. Meaning, what you get in the end product is a good replicates and therefore mutation of the DNA can be avoided. This will make the produced cells to contain original pattern of genetic component from the parent cells. This helps prevent autoimmune reactions in the body. This is also the reason why individuals are genetically unique from each other.
- Not all the replicated DNAs are identical - there will always be mishaps (insertions, deletions, substitutions of bases). However, during the replication process, the DNAs will be proofread so as to ensure that the DNAs are identical. Proofreading mechanisms allows the wrongly duplicated cells to be re-processed so as to be corrected.
Still, the replication is not 100% even though proofreading is done. This give chance for evolution to happen by creating new genetic data that will lead to existence of new phenotypes and for wild cases, cancer cells.
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