What are the advantages and disadvantages of reservation for STs, SCs, and OBCs in the field of education and politics?
In India, reservation is provided for historically backward and suppressed classes of Hindu society. These include the scheduled caste or SC, scheduled tribe or ST and other backward classes or OBC. The reservation in provided in the fields of education as lower cut-off marks for entry into educational institutes, reserving parliament or legislative assembly seats and reserving job vacancies.
The advantage of these reservations is that they allow these backward classes a chance at improving their lives and status in society and getting meaningful employment. They also get representation in various aspects of society and decision making, something that has been denied to them for a long time.
The disadvantage of the reservation is that it suppresses meritocracy, that is the availability of options to the most capable and deserving person. An example may be taken from the field of education. The top engineering colleges in India conduct an entrance test to admit students. However because of the reservation system, the reserved seats go to candidates who scored less than half the marks as compared to general candidates. This also means that the reserved candidates are less capable than their peers in the classroom and hence almost always play the role of second-class citizens.
So even though the system may have some merits, it should be used with caution and not indiscriminately.
Though the Reservation System works in favor of the backward castes of the society, at the same time, it has brewed up some controversies in the country too. It is believed that the system supersedes merit in certain circumstances, when meritorious candidates are deprived of the jobs or admissions so that candidates of backward classes can be accommodated as per the reservation system. Moreover, the system is confined to government institutions and firms, while those in the private sector are still beyond the reach of people belonging to the backward classes, either because they lack the skills needed to enter these firms or institutions or they are not financially sound enough to afford them. Some believe that the reservation system is a political tool to get hold of the backward class vote bank and it has an overall negative impact on the productive workforce of the country by ignoring the people with true potential and giving people opportunities on the basis of caste rather than merit.
reservation is based on economic status not in castecism .i would say this is wrong that sc ,st ,obc get promotion in jobs,promotion should get for ability and merits.