What were the achievements of Kublai Khan?

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Kublai Khan's greatest achievement was becoming the first Mongolian ruler of a unified China, defeating the Song Dynasty and establishing a capital at modern-day Beijing.

His Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) featured religious tolerance (except for Daoism), scientific advancements, and a paper currency backed by gold reserves. Kublai Khan made large infrastructure...

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Kublai Khan's greatest achievement was becoming the first Mongolian ruler of a unified China, defeating the Song Dynasty and establishing a capital at modern-day Beijing.

His Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) featured religious tolerance (except for Daoism), scientific advancements, and a paper currency backed by gold reserves. Kublai Khan made large infrastructure improvements, extending the Grand Canal and establishing an efficient postal system. He also reorganized the government into three separate branches and instituted a class system, the hierarchy from top to bottom being: Mongols, then Central Asians, then Northern Chinese, and then Southern Chinese. The lower classes were taxed more heavily, largely to fund the dynasty's military campaigns.

After invasions of Burma, Vietnam, and Sakhalin, two attempted invasions of Japan failed, in 1274 and 1281. So did an attempt to subjugate Java (modern-day Indonesia) in 1293.

Kublai Khan died in 1294 at age 79. Overall, his reign was seen as mostly benevolent, and he was well-respected. Mongol rule could not hold in China, however, and the Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by the Ming Dynasty in 1368.

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Under Kublai Khan, who lived from about 1215 to 1294 B.C.E., the Mongols achieved the height of their power in Asia.  After much fighting, he unified China under his control and established the Yuan dynasty, which would rule China for almost 100 years. While the Mongols failed to conquer Japan under his rule, they did take over Burma and Indochina.  In the West, the Mongol Empire extended into modern-day Eastern Europe, and southward into the Middle East. Kublai Khan also entertained connections with the West, most famously with the Venetian Marco Polo, whose account of his time in the royal court is the most important Western primary source of the Khan's rule. Owing partially to the diffuse nature of his empire, he generally tolerated most religions, with the exception of Taoism. The Khan also engaged in major public works projects, including the palace that Samuel Taylor Coleridge would immortalize as "Xanadu." 

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