Increased agricultural efficiency resulted in the growth of cities, or urbanization, in the late 1800s. The new forms of mechanized agricultural technology included the steam engine to power tractors; in the 1890s, the first gasoline-powered tractor came into use. In addition, other forms of technology, such as steel plows, the McCormick reaper, and the threshing machine, also made agricultural production more efficient. Farms were increasingly owned commercially as businesses rather than as individual holdings (see the source below). Therefore, fewer people were needed to work on farms, and people from rural areas increasingly moved to urban areas to find jobs in industrial production.
In addition, the advent of long-haul refrigerated cars in the late 1800s meant that the production of agricultural products did not have to occur near where they were consumed. As a result, certain areas of the country, such as the Northeast and sections of the Midwest, began to industrialize, capitalizing on new forms of technology (such as stream power) and cheap sources of labor from the stream of immigrants entering the country.