RACIAL JUSTICE. When it comes to the races, Atticus is color-blind. Altough he realizes that he cannot win the Tom Robinson case, he is able to present enough evidence that would free Tom had the jury not been biased against his client. As Scout reminds Dolphus Raymond,
"Atticus says cheatin' a colored man is ten times worse than cheatin' a white man... Says it's the worst thing you can do." (Chapter 20)
WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Atticus knows that things might have been different if Miss Maudie had been able to serve on the jury. He has to explain to Jem that in Alabama, women cannot serve on juries (in 1935). Jem is "indignant," and Atticus jokingly tells him that
"I guess it's to protect our frail ladies from sordid cases like Tom's. Besides... I doubt if we'd ever get a complete case tried--the ladies'd be interrupting to ask questions." (Chapter 23)
BOB'S DEATH. Following the attack on his children by Bob Ewell, a confused Atticus makes it clear that he will not allow Sheriff Tate to protect Jem (who Atticus mistakenly believes killed Bob) by falsely claiming that Bob Ewell "fell on his knife."
"... nobody's hushing this up. I don't live that way... I don't want my boy starting out with something like this over his head. Best way to clear the air is to have it all out in the open... I don't want him growing up with a whisper about him, I don't want anybody saying, 'Jem Finch, his daddy paid a mint to get him out of that..." (Chapter 30)