What are 3 influences on 20th century thought, and what are the impacts of these influences?

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Because your other questions are about World War I's aftermath, I'm going to assume you mean the early twentieth century. I would argue for three major influences on twentieth century thinkers. 

The first is Charles Darwin. Darwin's theory of evolution was influential in two ways. The first is that it contributed to a rising spirit of secularism among European intellectuals, because it seemed to be inconsistent with a Biblical version of creation. The second was that it was quickly co-opted by social theorists who sought to use it to justify war, imperialism, racism, and unregulated capitalism, among other things. It would remain an...

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