You can measure atoms, molecules, and ions. You can use it to find concentrations of solutions, the mass of a chemical, you can use it to test if a reaction will complete 100% or if there is a limiting or excess reagent.
I am not sure what you mean by your question but I will try to answer the best I can.
A mole is unit used for counting lots and lots of things. A "dozen" is a similar concept to a mole. A dozen donuts = 12 donuts. We count many donuts using "dozens". Similarly a mole represents a large number of objects (usually atoms, ions, molecules or other particles).
The value of one mole is 6.02 x 10^23 things. That is 602 plus 21 more zeros. It is a huge number.
Chemists use the mole because it is important that we know NUMBERS of particles in chemical equations. Because these numbers are so LARGE, we use the mole to express them.
With regards to your question, chemists use moles to measure the number of atoms/molecules/ions/particles in
1. a solid sample of pure substance (like a block of copper, or pile of salt)
2. the amount of substance in a solution (like salt dissolved in water)
3. a container filled with gas
more on the mole at http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Ma-Na/Mole-Concept.html