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The Nile River was the "backbone" of Egypt. The annual flooding of the river deposited rich soil allowing farmers to raise crops along the river banks. Rich agricultural and mineral resources along with protection provided by the desert allowed a long-lasting civilization to develop in Egypt. The settlement of a town had to take two main considerations into mind The proximity to a water source and the height it was built above the flooding of the Nile. The mud-brick buildings were susceptible to water and damp conditions so care had to be taken when considering the placement of a house, town or city. When houses did crumble, new houses were simply built upon the ruins of the former house. This led to houses and towns being built on a more elevated plain. These hills are called tells. The 'permanent' structures like temples and their surrounding enclosures are now on a lower floor level - this would be the original level as temples were not generally built or renewed upon each other as the houses were.
Thinis is said to have been found nearby el-Birba a little bit west of the modern town of Girga on the western bank of the Nile, which is the place where Thinis is thought to have been located. The main deity of Thinis is said to be Anhur. Situated 80 km south of Luxor in Upper Egypt, ancient Nekhen is one of the largest Predynastic sites in ancient Egypt encountered sofar.The modern name Tell el-Farain means 'Mound of hte Pharaohs'. Situated in the northwestern Delta, some 95 km east of Alexandria, the ancient city of Buto has left traces of occupation from the Predynastic times into the Roman period. Buto, or Pe, was the northern counterpart cult center in Lower Egypt to Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) in Upper Egypt, which was the southern one.
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