A lengthy chapter of a few dozens of pages of text allows for more context, depth, and nuance than a documentary. In other words, to a large degree, the nature of each medium shapes the type and nature of the material being presented.
To be more specific, the textbook looks at global developments, such as migration, and developments in other parts of the world. The documentary clings closely to developments in only Europe and Africa.
The textbook also provides primary sources that readers can themselves examine to complement their understanding of the narrative being presented. The documentary provides oral history in the form of interviews, but the interviewees are not always speaking from firsthand experience.
Both accounts consider the impact of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the need for raw materials. Colonialism is also seen within the context of a struggle for political supremacy between European states.
The documentary tends to focus on Europe's exploitation of Africa. There is a tendency to see Africa as a passive object.
By contrast, the textbook considers African agency, including rebellion and resistance to European imperialism.
In the documentary, both Europe and Africa are presented as monolithic. The text is also guilty of this tendency, but not to the same extent as the documentary.