I think that you certainly can argue that what happens to one of the Adams after the trial is a case of divine vengeance.
There are two main reasons why I would say this. First, this is a case where God ought to be angry. The Adams twins have used the fact that they are identical to get away with murder. Second, the author points out that the twin that dies has his had crushed in just the same way that Mrs. Parker's had been. This makes it seem that he is being punished in an "eye for an eye" sort of manner -- God is giving him exactly what he deserved.