Industrialization played a major role in causing the unrest in areas of Europe in the mid-1800s. Factories came into existence in urban areas because that was where the money was to invest in building such facilities. Large numbers of formerly rural farm workers moved to the cities in search of jobs at the new factories - many more people than job openings, which led to widespread unemployment with the related difficulties of people who couldn't pay for housing, food, and other basic necessities. Unrest was heightened as the unemployed new city dwellers began demanding a voice in the government but were shut out of the voting process by requirements that required voters to be land owners.
The first European nation to begin addressing these problems was Great Britain, where the Industrial Revolution began. France reached crisis point and faced its crisis in 1848.