There are many, many literary terms, here are the most commonly used figures of speech.
Literary Terms, also called figures of speech include:
Simile - a comparison of two different things using the works like or as. ex. My love is like a red red rose (Robert Burns)
Metaphor - a comparison of two unlike things which does not include the worlds like or as. ex. And take my tears, which are love’s wine.(John Donne)
"Personification - a figure of speech in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are endowed with human form, character, traits, or sensibilities. An entirely imaginary creature or person also may be conceived of as representing an idea or object. Like a metaphor, personification is a frequent resource in poetry."
ex. the clouds wept, giving a human trait to nature.
"Hyperbole - obvious and deliberate exaggeration or an extravagant statement. It is a figure of speech not intended to be taken literally since it is exaggeration for the sake of emphasis. Hyperbole is a common poetic and dramatic device."
I agree with the first answer, but since you tagged your questions with alliteration, here is the definition.
Alliteration is the repetition of a consonant sound within a line. For example in the line" Peter Piper picked a peck of picked peppers", the "p" sound is repeated both at the beginning and in the middle of words. This is "alliteration." This device is often used in poetry to achieve some kind of sound pattern or as a unifying device within a line of prose or poetry.
figures of speech are styles of saying something in a literary way
Figures of speech includes
allusion and so on.
Figures of speech is an expression that uses language in a nonliteral way, such as a metaphor or synecdoche, or in a structured or unusual way, such as anaphora or chiasmus, or that employs sounds, such as alliteration or assonance, to achieve a rhetorical effect.
The following are known to be the figures of speech:The Top 20 Figures of speech
A figure of speech in which a writer or a speaker deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is