Walt Whitman

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Are Walt Whitman's poems "Facing West From California's Shores" and "Beat! Beat! Drums" cognitive or literal?

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Reuven Tsur is most often credited for making the distinction between a literal and a cognitive approach to poetry. According to Tsur there are two ways of reading poetry: for the literal meanings and for the rhythms and sounds that  work on the body and brain and cause us to make connections less directly. According to Tsur most poems have a cognitive aspect to them. 

However, in comparing Walt Whitman 's poems "Facing West from a California Shore" and "Beat! Beat! Drums!" it's easy to see that "Facing West from a California Shore" is more...

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