Visual recognition involves storing and retrieving memories.
Neural activity, triggered by the eye, forms an image in the brains memory system that constitutes an internal representation of the viewed object. When an object is encountered again, it is matched with its internal representation and thereby recognized. Controversy surrounds the question of whether recognition is a parallel, one-step process or a serial, step-by-step one. Psychologists of the Gestalt school maintain that object are recognized as wholes in a parallel procedure : , the internal representation is matched with the retinal image in a single operation. Other psychologists have proposed that internal representation features are matched serially with an object's features. Although some experiments show that, as an object become familiar, its internal representation becomes more familiar, its internal representation becomes more holistic and the recognition process correspondingly more parallel, the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis, at least for objects that are not notably simple and familiar. The author is primarily concerned with
a) Explaining how the brain receives images
b) Synthesizing hypotheses of visual recognition
c) Examining the evidence supporting the serial recognition hypothesis
d) Discussing visual recognition and some hypotheses proposed to explain it.
There is a lot of information packed into this paragraph! However, if you read carefully and think about what that information is telling you and how it is organized, the correct answer isn't that difficult to identify.
Based on the opening sentence, the main topic of the paragraph is dealing with how visual recognition processes work to allow for memories to be created. First, the forming and storing of the visual image in the brain's memory is explained.
Then, the debate regarding exactly how the recognition process functions to make the match between a second sighting of an object with the memory of that object stored in the brain's visual memory is addressed. The first theory explained is the Gestalt idea, which says that objects are recognized as a whole unit, all at once. A second theory holds that objects are matched to visual memories in a step-by-step matching of features between a remembered visualization of an object and a newly observed item.
The correct summary of your paragraph is D. The article discusses visual recognition and presents two hypotheses to explain how the process takes place.