The value of explicit rules in bureaucratic institutions is that they
A. facilitate individually tailored treatment of citizens
B. allow for flexibility
C. encourage creativity
D. create standardization and predictability
E. reduce uniformity of behavior
The correct answer to this question is Option D. One tip for you on questions like this is that you should look to see if many of the options all say essentially the same thing. In this case, all of the options other than D are about the bureaucrats having more flexibility or freedom of action. If one were right, the others would be too. D is clearly different from all the rest, making it the most likely answer.
D is also right because bureaucracies have explicit rules specifically so that their actions will be standardized and predictable. We do not want a situation where, for example, a person is given a driver’s license because the clerk at the motor vehicles office likes them and realizes that they really need to have their license. Instead, we want a hard-and-fast rule that says that you have to get at least a certain score on your driving test so that we know that you are a competent driver. If bureaucracies do not have explicit rules, they are too likely to become arbitrary and potentially unfair. Instead, they do have explicit rules to make sure that they treat everyone the same way. For this reason, D is the correct answer to this question.