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The most commonly used vectors for gene transfer in higher plants are based on tumor inducing mechanism of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is the causal organism for crown gall disease.It has been shown that the disease is caused due to the transfer of a DNA segment from the bacterium to the plant nuclear genome. The DNA segment, which is transferred is called T-DNA and is part of a large Ti plasmid found in virulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
In animals transfer of individual cloned genes is generally achieved by inserting into a fertilized egg, a large number of copies of recombinant plasmid carrying the gene of interest, using the technique of DNA microinjection.
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