Use 'Galápagos Finches' as a specific example to explain how mutations can lead to evolutionary change.

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The finches are one of the organisms that Darwin observed that led him to his theory of evolution by natural selection. The finches came from a common ancestor, but became geographically separated on different islands; that is, the finches on one island could no longer breed with finches on another....

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The finches are one of the organisms that Darwin observed that led him to his theory of evolution by natural selection. The finches came from a common ancestor, but became geographically separated on different islands; that is, the finches on one island could no longer breed with finches on another. The food available to the finches was different on different islands. Chance mutations led to differences in the beak structures of the finches. When the changes were to the advantage of the finch--say, a longer beak when the major available food was nectar deep in a flower--those finches, on that island reproduced and left more offspring than the finches who did not have the long beak. This is how evolution works--a chance mutation turns out to be beneficial, and that organism leaves more offspring who ALSO tend to have that trait.

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