In Tennyson's "Ulysses," whom does Ulysses address in the second half of the poem?

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The speaker, Ulysses, is addressing his fellow sailors. He calls out to them directly as "my mariners," and states that both he and they are now "old." Because they are all old, Ulysses suspects that his mariners will share his views, and particularly his fears about what is yet to come for them. He appeals to the sailors, telling them that although they are not young men any more, it is not yet too late for them to do something else "noble" before they die.

Ulysses' appeal to his fellow sailors is intended to encourage them to join him on his voyage, a voyage which will be their final one. He incentivizes the sailors by suggesting that they may yet meet again their old friend, Achilles, in the Happy Isles, and find a "newer world" beyond the stars before the metaphorical sun sets on their lives for good. In the stirring and oft-quoted final line of the poem, Ulysses exhorts his fellow sailors to join him in this quest: they may no longer be as strong in physical terms as they once were, but they still have the strength of will "to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield."

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In the first 32 lines of Alfred Lord Tennyson's "Ulysses," written in 1833, the poet is taking on the guise of the hero musing to himself. In the first five lines, the hero appears bored with post-adventure life in Ithaca. In lines 6–32, he reflects upon his past adventures at Troy and on his return home to Ithaca. Next, at lines 33–44, Ulysses turns his attention to his son, Telemachus, and imagines the sort of ruler that his son will be once he is gone.

In the final part of the poem, Ulysses address his fellow sailors. At line 45, he calls them "my mariners"; at line 49 he links himself with them in age ("you and I are old"); and at lines 56-57 he says, "Come, my friends / 'Tis not too late to seek a newer world." He summons them to further adventures and journeys.

Of course, Tennyson's "real" addressee for this poem is most likely his fellow British countrymen, whom he is reminding of their glorious past and urging them on to a more glorious future.

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