True or False: According to Kant, the rational agent should not only know what is right but should also be motivated to act by feelings of empathy, sympathy, and the good feeling that doing the right thing brings.

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The statement is false. Kant's ethical theory is what's called deontological . This means that it's concerned with the intrinsic rightness of particular actions rather than their consequences. So for Kant, even if a specific action brings about the greatest good for the greatest number of people, it's not moral...

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The statement is false. Kant's ethical theory is what's called deontological. This means that it's concerned with the intrinsic rightness of particular actions rather than their consequences. So for Kant, even if a specific action brings about the greatest good for the greatest number of people, it's not moral if it isn't right in itself, and it isn't right in itself if it can't be universalized.

Take the example of breaking promises. Kant regards this as immoral because it is intrinsically wrong, violates the moral law that we give to ourselves through reason, and is therefore incapable of being universalized. That is to say that if everyone habitually broke their promises, then the very making of them would be utterly meaningless and trust between human beings would break down completely.

In acting morally, such as keeping one's promises, we don't need to feel good about ourselves or have any sense of empathy or sympathy for anyone else. We simply have to follow the dictates of the moral law that we give to ourselves through our own reason. For only in this way, according to Kant, can we ever be sure that we are acting morally. Of course, we may well feel good when we act morally—we may also feel empathy and sympathy—but any such feelings or emotions are ultimately irrelevant when it comes to judging the morality of the act itself, and for that reason, more than any other, the above statement is false.

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This statement is not true.  To Kant, the only proper reason for acting in some certain way is because that action is a person's duty.  The only thing that should (not does) motivate a person to act is that person's desire to do his or her duty.

Kant does not believe that human beings should be motivated by a desire to feel good.  His thinking is almost the opposite of this.  People, to Kant, are not supposed to act out of emotion or any sort of feeling.  Instead, they are supposed to act on their duty, as revealed to them through their reason.  They are supposed to use their reason to figure out what they should do (using the categorical imperative, for example) and act as they should because it is their duty to do so.

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