The transcendentalist literary movement was not likely to have influenced Poe's work. His work bears little resemblance to the writing of transcendentalists like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Poe belonged, rather, to the Dark Romanticism school of literature; his work was published toward the end of the Romantic era. Other writers within this Dark Romanticism movement were Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville.
While transcendental writers valued being at one with nature and asceticism, Poe's work was much more macabre in tone. Poe's dark sense of humor often came out in stories like "The Cask of Amontillado." His work often had themes of death, murder, anxiety, and despair. Transcendentalism sought to inspire and uplift through a natural lifestyle. Meanwhile, Poe's writing was interested in telling spooky tales, not prescriptive teachings.
Poe's work was very influential to future movements like modernism and existentialism. One might even refer to his work as a kind of pre-existentialism. With his weird stories, alienated characters, and chaotic plot lines, it is not hard to see why.