# Science

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Viruses, in certain conditions, can benefit health and agriculture. One example relates to the development of the immune system and the possible replacement of beneficial bacteria in the...

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RF, or Retention Factor values, are fractions used in chromatography, representing the known fraction of the total distance traveled by the solvent that the given material will travel. An RF of 1...

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The fact that it's called an ecosystem implies that there are many factors contributing to this idea, and I think it would be difficult to say that any one of them is the most important....

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Let me start by answering the final question. Yes, cellular respiration without photosynthesis is possible as long as the oxygen and glucose that cellular respiration requires are supplied via some...

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There are multiple questions being asked here. The following answer will focus on the first two questions as they are quite closely related. Meiosis is a process of reduction division. Students are...

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Jean Watson is an American nursing theorist who is widely known for her theory of human caring. The work of Watson is accepted as the premier research in the field of nursing, and her research on...

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Of those three processes, gene flow is the least related because gene flow will introduce new genetic coding into an existing population. The reason for this is because of what gene flow is. Gene...

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The bioluminescence that some species use to hunt prey is an adaptation that increases the organism's overall fitness. Without the ability to generate that light to attract prey, the species will...

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I've rewritten the reactions here for clarity.I left out all of the matter phase subscripts because they aren't particularly relevant for classifying the reactions. Cu(OH)_2 -> CuO + H_2O `CuO...

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This question can be answered in a variety of ways, so I'd like to briefly highlight some of those various pathways for this answer. Animals see humans exactly the way that you see humans because...

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Humans are primates. Primates are a category of mammal and are most prominently represented by apes and monkeys. Like all mammals, primates are warm-blooded, give birth to live young and nurse...

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Alternation of generation is a type of life cycle seen in some species of plants; it has no comparison among mammals. Here is a very rough analogy: rather than you and your partner each giving half...

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Nematodes are similar to, but considerably distinct from, the various species of tapeworm that are parasitic and infect humans in a similar manner. Nematodes typically infect humans via consumption...

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The most obvious difference between a fish and an amphibian is that (most) fish can only survive when submerged in water. Amphibians, on the other hand, can survive both in and out of the water....

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Tapeworms are parasitic animals that derive their nutrients from the body of their host, such as a dog, bear, fish, or deer. The niche of parasitic worms end up contributing to strengthening host...

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To answer this question, it is important to understand the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. These are both examples of operant conditioning, which has to do...

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Tapeworms are a type of parasite, meaning that they depend upon another organism, the host, to provide them with food. In doing so, they negatively impact the life of the host, usually by robbing...

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Most of the biological changes that occur in our lives happen in the period of adolescence. Changes involved are both physical and psychological, and vary greatly depending on biological sex and...

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Understanding the implications of this damage depends upon understanding the nature of the damage itself. "Ciliated" refers to cells that have hair-like structures on them, which can move and...

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What’s important to keep in mind about the human brain is that, despite its complexity, it can only effectively handle little bits of information at a time. The complexity of a human brain is...

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is indeed a vital component of living organisms. ATP is an organic chemical that provides energy to the cells of living organisms. Without it, nerve impulses don't...

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While most people think of the skeleton as being simply "what holds you up," it has several features that are a bit more complex than this. The skeleton provides a strong yet flexible framework...

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Sexual reproduction is the process by which genetic information is taken from two different individuals and combined. It is important to note that the combination of different sexes is not...

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DNA is the molecule that controls heredity. It is passed down from generation to generation. A species survives when its best offspring reproduce, thus passing on the most desirable genes. These...

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In 1933, Maurice Tainter, a clinical pharmacologist from Stanford University, found that the ingestion of 2-4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) resulted in huge weight loss. Shortly thereafter, it was promoted...

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The Virginia opossum is widely known throughout North America. The "Virginia" epithet is somewhat misleading because nothing about the state of Virginia is particularly relevant to the animal. Its...

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The platypus is an interesting choice for comparison to a human, because the platypus is a good example of nature defying our methods of categorizing life. The platypus and humans are both mammals....

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A survey question posed to 743 people gets 569 positive answers. We are asked to find a 99% confidence interval of the true population proportion. (1) In a TI-83/84 calculator: Hit Stat -> Tests...

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Because this question is categorized under science, I am going to answer it based on the genetic basics that were originally laid out by Gregor Mendel rather than discussing Richard Dawkins's book...

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This problem can look somewhat daunting at first glance, but just start with the information that you have and use it to fill in equations that you have already likely been told in class. I would...

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This is a molarity problem, and molarity is defined by the moles of solute in one liter of solution. In this case, the calcium chloride is the solute (thing being dissolved) and the solution is...

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Many molecules are hygroscopic, meaning that they are able to absorb water from their environment, including water vapor in the air. This means that hygroscopic molecules, unless completely dried...

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I believe that this question is asking whether or not the statement provided is true. If that is the case, then the statement is false. Generally speaking, a stimulus precedes a behavior. In...

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Yes, if you want to put it very simply, you could summarize operant conditioning as a behavior-response relationship where the behavior elicits the response. However, I would argue that it doesn’t...

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Green sea turtles are found in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Despite that vast area, the turtles are sensitive to heat and cold; therefore, the turtles are limited to the warmer parts...

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This question is completely open to the subjective choice of each person being asked the question, so feel free to pick your favorite organelle and explain why it is your favorite. In my...

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The hypothesis written here is not very clear; however, it is possible to answer your question as it is asking for what the independent and dependent variables are. The independent variable is the...

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You have done a really nice job so far of setting up a controlled experiment. I do not know your initial hypothesis, but I presume that it basically says, "if plants are grown in different colors...

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Living soil refers to soil that has a community of organisms within the soil that work together to break down organic matter. That activity provides nutrition that is extremely important to plants...

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The nature of a model is that it accurately represents only a portion of the modeled object; for example, model trains accurately represent the shape and proportions of full-sized railroad...

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Utilizing this equation depends on whether you want to analyze the rate for selected portions of your experiment time or the entire duration of the experiment. This is important, because your rate...

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Nutrition is a field of growing interest to many people. At the base, it is about learning and understanding how the body uses food for energy and how best to provide for the body's needs through a...

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One major problem with such a study is the very premise of the study. By grouping together diseases such as pneumonia with autism, the study asserts that being autistic should be considered a...

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I would like to clarify that tetany is not a disease. Tetany is a symptom that could be linked to several diseases; therefore, tetany does not have a singular cause. Tetany is involuntary muscle...

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Density is defined as mass per unit volume. In other words, density is the amount of matter within a given amount of space. Water has a density of 1.0 gram per milliliter. Since one milliliter...

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This is a great question due to the fact that it correctly identifies discrepancies that exist between the scientific definition and usage of the word "theory" and how the general public defines...

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This question does correctly identify the fact that no hypothesis is perfect. As a start, your initial hypothesis is a fairly decent hypothesis. It is specific in its wording. Additionally, the...

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This is technically more than one question. I'll answer about rickets and osteoporosis. Rickets is a medical condition that results in the softening and weakening of bones in children. The most...