# Science

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Thomas Kuhn and Peter Galison largely approach scientific breakthroughs in different ways. There are a few similarities in that both men address the innovative approaches of individuals as driving...

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Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was a landmark book in the history of science. Up to its publication, scholars and scientists had generally held to the notion of gradualism,...

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Mitosis and meiosis are similar enough where it is common for students to mix up the two processes. It doesn't help that both processes use prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase as phase...

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Towards the end of the essay, Gallon sums up several points, which I believe are the answer to your question; Science has traditionally been concerned with "things and thoughts" - mechanisms and...

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A properly functioning compass will always point towards magnetic north. This is because the magnetic pin in the compass will align itself to the top of the planet's magnetic field and point itself...

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Mitosis and meiosis are fundamentally different based on their function in a living organism. Mitosis is the division of somatic cells, and its primary purpose is to facilitate the growth of the...

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The stomach, like all other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, is made up of four different kinds of tissues, each of which has a variety of functions associated with digestion. These parts are...

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Homeostasis involves body systems working to maintain a consist pattern of physiological behavior within certain boundaries. Homeostasis in the blood is concerned with multiple factors, such as;...

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There are a number of questions being asked here, and all of them are asking for a person's subjective opinion. Personally, I am against all of these proposals, but that reflects a personal...

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Epigenetics are the "markers" that determine which portion of our DNA is meant to be used at a given time, by a given cell. Since each cell contains a complete copy of the entire organism's DNA,...

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Consequence-based intervention is very different from punishment. The goal of any intervention is to decrease the instances of negative behavior. Therefore, you can consider it a success if the...

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At the start of his essay in Questioning Collapse, Tim Murray claims that it is a requirement for societal sustainability that people engage "in an honorable and honest discourse about their...

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The bioluminescence that some species use to hunt prey is an adaptation that increases the organism's overall fitness. Without the ability to generate that light to attract prey, the species will...

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I've rewritten the reactions here for clarity.I left out all of the matter phase subscripts because they aren't particularly relevant for classifying the reactions. Cu(OH)_2 -> CuO + H_2O `CuO...

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This question can be answered in a variety of ways, so I'd like to briefly highlight some of those various pathways for this answer. Animals see humans exactly the way that you see humans because...

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The latest research indicates that women who take hormone replacement therapy are at a slightly increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. It's important to note that this does not...

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This question asks for the "most likely" reason for why the individual chromosomes present in a spermatozoan at the end of meiosis are different than the individual chromosomes that were present at...

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The condition that this question is asking about is something called aneuploidy. When a cell is "euploid," it is normal or "good." The prefix "an-" means essentially "not," "without," or...

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Humans are primates. Primates are a category of mammal and are most prominently represented by apes and monkeys. Like all mammals, primates are warm-blooded, give birth to live young and nurse...

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Alternation of generation is a type of life cycle seen in some species of plants; it has no comparison among mammals. Here is a very rough analogy: rather than you and your partner each giving half...

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Nematodes are similar to, but considerably distinct from, the various species of tapeworm that are parasitic and infect humans in a similar manner. Nematodes typically infect humans via consumption...

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Epigenetics is a fairly recent emerging science. It is the study of phenotypic changes that are caused by the modification of gene expression rather than the modification of the DNA itself. The...

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Of those three processes, gene flow is the least related because gene flow will introduce new genetic coding into an existing population. The reason for this is because of what gene flow is. Gene...

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Viruses, in certain conditions, can benefit health and agriculture. One example relates to the development of the immune system and the possible replacement of beneficial bacteria in the...

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The most obvious difference between a fish and an amphibian is that (most) fish can only survive when submerged in water. Amphibians, on the other hand, can survive both in and out of the water....

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Tapeworms are parasitic animals that derive their nutrients from the body of their host, such as a dog, bear, fish, or deer. The niche of parasitic worms end up contributing to strengthening host...

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To answer this question, it is important to understand the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. These are both examples of operant conditioning, which has to do...

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Tapeworms are a type of parasite, meaning that they depend upon another organism, the host, to provide them with food. In doing so, they negatively impact the life of the host, usually by robbing...

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Most of the biological changes that occur in our lives happen in the period of adolescence. Changes involved are both physical and psychological, and vary greatly depending on biological sex and...

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Understanding the implications of this damage depends upon understanding the nature of the damage itself. "Ciliated" refers to cells that have hair-like structures on them, which can move and...

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In the second half of the 1700s, a scientist by the name of Joseph Priestley conducted a groundbreaking experiment that nicely demonstrates the tight relationship that exists between cellular...

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What’s important to keep in mind about the human brain is that, despite its complexity, it can only effectively handle little bits of information at a time. The complexity of a human brain is...

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is indeed a vital component of living organisms. ATP is an organic chemical that provides energy to the cells of living organisms. Without it, nerve impulses don't...

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Jean Watson is an American nursing theorist who is widely known for her theory of human caring. The work of Watson is accepted as the premier research in the field of nursing, and her research on...

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While most people think of the skeleton as being simply "what holds you up," it has several features that are a bit more complex than this. The skeleton provides a strong yet flexible framework...

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Sexual reproduction is the process by which genetic information is taken from two different individuals and combined. It is important to note that the combination of different sexes is not...

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DNA is the molecule that controls heredity. It is passed down from generation to generation. A species survives when its best offspring reproduce, thus passing on the most desirable genes. These...

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In 1933, Maurice Tainter, a clinical pharmacologist from Stanford University, found that the ingestion of 2-4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) resulted in huge weight loss. Shortly thereafter, it was promoted...

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There are multiple questions being asked here. The following answer will focus on the first two questions as they are quite closely related. Meiosis is a process of reduction division. Students are...

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Let me start by answering the final question. Yes, cellular respiration without photosynthesis is possible as long as the oxygen and glucose that cellular respiration requires are supplied via some...

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RF, or Retention Factor values, are fractions used in chromatography, representing the known fraction of the total distance traveled by the solvent that the given material will travel. An RF of 1...

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The fact that it's called an ecosystem implies that there are many factors contributing to this idea, and I think it would be difficult to say that any one of them is the most important....

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The Virginia opossum is widely known throughout North America. The "Virginia" epithet is somewhat misleading because nothing about the state of Virginia is particularly relevant to the animal. Its...

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The platypus is an interesting choice for comparison to a human, because the platypus is a good example of nature defying our methods of categorizing life. The platypus and humans are both mammals....

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A survey question posed to 743 people gets 569 positive answers. We are asked to find a 99% confidence interval of the true population proportion. (1) In a TI-83/84 calculator: Hit Stat -> Tests...

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Because this question is categorized under science, I am going to answer it based on the genetic basics that were originally laid out by Gregor Mendel rather than discussing Richard Dawkins's book...

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This problem can look somewhat daunting at first glance, but just start with the information that you have and use it to fill in equations that you have already likely been told in class. I would...

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This is a molarity problem, and molarity is defined by the moles of solute in one liter of solution. In this case, the calcium chloride is the solute (thing being dissolved) and the solution is...