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  • Health
    Overview Maharishi Mahesh Yogi was an Indian philosopher and teacher born in India. He developed Transcendental Meditation, which...

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    Introduction By the 1960s, it had been well established that schizophrenia often ran in families. The general population rate for the disorder is about 1...

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  • Health
    Introduction Addiction is a condition in which individuals engage in habitual behaviors or use of substances in a way that is maladaptive and causes them...

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    Introduction People develop psychologically throughout the life cycle, including the three stages of adulthood identified by Erik Erikson: early...

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    Introduction Childhood is a time of rapid development and change. The family adjusts to these changes daily as the child develops physically,...

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  • Health
    Introduction The word “yoga” comes from the Sanskrit word Yuj, meaning to “yoke,” “join,” or “unite.” The word implies...

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  • Health
    Risk Factors The ZSS disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Individuals with mutations in both copies of any one of...

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  • Health
    Overview Zinc is an important element that is found in every cell in the body. More than three hundred enzymes in the body need zinc in order to function...

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  • Health
    Risk Factors Only males are at risk for XYY syndrome. Most cases of the disorder are not inherited but result from a random event during the formation of...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms Yellow fever is a viral disease of humans spread by infected mosquitoes. The infectious agent is a flavivirus. Yellow fever is...

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  • Health
    Indications and Procedures The transplantation of organs from human donors to human recipients has been established practice in medicine since the first...

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  • Health
    Related conditions: Skin cancer, eyelid tumors, telangiectasia,...

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  • Health
    Overview Xylitol, a natural sugar found in plums, strawberries, and raspberries, is used as a sweetener in some “sugarless” gums...

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  • Health
    Causes Work addiction is caused by a complex constellation of factors, including family history of work addiction or other addictions, perfectionism,...

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  • Health
    Introduction Motivation is the psychological process that directs people’s choices regarding the type and intensity of their behavior. A common...

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  • Health
    Overview Artemisia absinthium, or common wormwood, is best known as an ingredient of the alcoholic beverage...

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  • Health
    Woman-centered care is an approach to medicine that empowers women to make decisions and manage their own care, ensuring...

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  • Health
    Overview Although men and women share a majority of health issues, there are many conditions that are specific to women. Women’s...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, resulting in excess copper accumulation and toxicity in the...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms Withdrawal can be caused by medicines, alcohol, or illegal drugs. The factors that increase the chances of developing withdrawal...

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  • Health
    Risk Factors There are no known risk factors for WPW syndrome....

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  • Health
    Risk Factors There are no known risk factors. The incidence of Williams syndrome is estimated to be less than 1 in 10,000 people. The disease almost...

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  • Health
    Risk Factors One risk factor for Wilms’ tumor is having a family member with a Wilms’ tumor. Certain birth defects also increase the risk of a...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms When a moving car collides with an obstacle, the driver and passengers suddenly feel themselves...

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  • Health
    Overview Whole medicine is a treatment that is an alternative to allopathic (conventional) medicine. Whole medicine is a type of...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms The etiological agent of whooping cough is Bordetella pertussis, a small, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. A similar organism,...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms For most of the twentieth century following its discovery in Uganda, West Nile virus, an organism that can cause severe inflammation...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms Wheezing is a whistling or grating noise created when a person’s breathing passages are narrowed or blocked. It can be accompanied...

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  • Health
    Overview Whey is one of the two major classes of protein in milk. The other is casein, the “curds” of “curds and whey.”...

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  • Health
    Related conditions: Fatigue, illness, malnutrition, infection, poor wound...

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  • Health
    Risk Factors The Werner syndrome (WRN) gene is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The risk for Werner syndrome is related to the level of...

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  • Health
    Risk Factors Individuals without a family history presumably have de novo (sporadic) mutations. Advanced paternal age is a risk factor for sporadic...

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  • Health
    Alfalfa Effect: Possible Harmful Interaction The herb alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is...

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  • Health
    Definition Water treatment is the process of removing contaminants from water to make it safe for drinking,...

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  • Health
    Risk Factors Von Gierke disease is an autosomal recessive trait that requires that both parents pass on the mutations. In September...

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  • Health
    Related conditions: Renal cysts; clear cell form of renal cell carcinoma;...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is a genetic disorder affecting the normal clotting function of platelets in the...

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  • Health
    Overview Vitamin B6 plays a major role in making proteins, hormones, and neurotransmitters—chemicals that carry signals between nerve cells. Because...

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  • Health
    Causes and Symptoms There is no known cause for vitiligo, but it may be an autoimmune disease or a disorder in which one or more genes contribute to its...

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  • Health
    Structure and Functions Vision is one of five special senses. Vision provides information about the environment and is important in balance. Loss of...

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  • Health
    Overview Vitamin B1, also called thiamin, was the first B vitamin discovered. Every cell in the body needs thiamin to make adenosine triphosphate, or...

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  • Health
    Overview Vitamin B3 is required for the proper function of more than fifty enzymes. Without it, the body would not be able to release energy or make fats...

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    Introduction After World War II, computer scientists and engineers developed technology, such as flight simulators, that provided an early foundation for...

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    Definition The term “virulence” means the disease-producing (pathogenic) capabilities and mechanisms of a microorganism and also...

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  • Health
    Definition Viral pharyngitis is a sore, inflamed throat caused by infection with a virus....

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  • Health
    Virginity refers to the state of a person who has never engaged in the physical act of sexual intercourse. People who have intact...

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  • Health
    Definition Virology is the study of viruses and their role in disease. The science includes human, animal, insect, plant, fungal, and bacterial virology....

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  • Health
    Definition Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by a virus. Viral hepatitis leads to liver inflammation and can also lead to liver cancer....

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  • Health
    Definition The brain and spinal cord are encased by layers of tissue called the meninges. Certain viruses can cause an infection in...

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  • Health
    Vicarious traumatization, also known as secondary traumatization or insidious trauma, is a mental condition in which an...

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