Tom Robinson survives his short stint in the Maycomb Jail, saved from the lynch mob by Atticus's determined stand and the timely arrival of Jem, Scout and Dill. Following Tom's conviction, he is sent to Enfield Prison Farm in Chester County, some seventy miles from Maycomb. Atticus guarantees his children that Tom will be safe there until "the higher court reviewed his case" or until he receives a new trial. But such is not the case. Tom cannot stand the prison walls around him, or white man's justice, and it is at Enfield that he breaks and runs, being shot 17 times by prison guards while trying to make a daytime escape.
No, Tom is shot trying to escape the Enfield Prison Farm after he is found guilty. The hopelessness that Tom experienced after the trial made it impossible for him to accept his new fate. His desperate attempt to free himself shows Scout and Jem the harsh reality that they now live in.