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The word tire (also spelt as tyre) today refers to the shock absorbent rubber covering around the wheel of a vehicle. However it is interesting to note that this word originally referred to an iron or steel hoop or ting that covered the wooden parts of wheels and served the purpose of holding the parts together and protecting them from wearing out.l However, I believe the discussion post refers to the primarily rubber based tires and accordingly my post also covers that only.
One major step in development of tire was the development of the process of vulcanizing rubber developed by Charles Goodyear in 1839. Soon after this discovery people started making tires of solid rubber.
An improvement in the rubber tire was development of pneumatic rubber tire which were initially made of one tube filled with air. Subsequently two part pneumatic tires were developed with a tough outer rubber casing enclosing a thinner inner inflatable rubber tube filled with air.
The pneumatic tires were much lighter as compared to solid tires, and provided much smoother ride. The first one piece pneumatic tire was made in 1888 by John Boyd Dunlop for tricycles.Single tube pneumatic tires appeared in 1895. The two part pneumatic tyre began to be used in first decade of twentieth century.
With improving technology it became possible to once again develop and manufacture one part pneumatic tires that gave better performance than the two part tires. Such improves one part tires were introduced in 1948 under the description of tubeless tires.
Columbian population of Central and South America used rubber, long before the arrival of Europeans, for balls, containers, shoes and sealing. Mentioned by Spanish and Portuguese explorers in the 16th century, has aroused the interest until it was presented by Charles de la Condamine and François Fresnos Academy of Sciences in France in 1736-51. Tests for use in waterproofing fabrics was done before 1800, but the main applications were as elastic bandages and eraser. Joseph Priestley is credited with discovering erasers in 1770 . The first rubber factory was established near Paris in 1803 and first manufactured in England by Thomas Hancock in 1820. In 1823 Charles Macintosh was devising the process of waterproofing fabrics and in 1839 Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization with sulfur, a process that will revolutionize the industry. In the 2nd half of the 19th century was the exploding demand for rubber insulation of electric cables and especially the tire industry. Despite strict regulations in Brazil, the first seeds of the rubber tree arrives in England in 1876, where they are sent to Ceylon and later in other countries of the South Asia (Malaya, Java, Sumatra, etc.) and lay the foundations of modern rubber plantations . Until World War I the rubber industry is based almost exclusively on the natural environment. In 1927 The first synthetic rubber, Chloroprene rubber followed in 1931. During World War II German scientists succeed butadiene-styrene rubber synthesis first, followed almost immediately by the United States.
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