The traditional theme of anti-Western ideology revolves around the modernity’s of capitalism, secularization and to a lesser extent industrialization. The reactions to these ideologies were dependent on the particular anti-Western society. In the communist world the primary critic of western ideology was in regards to capitalism. In communist states which operated under a Marxist economic philosophy, capitalism was an antithesis of their political and economic ideology. Marxist believe that capital and the means of production should controlled by the state for the overall benefit of society, this is in direct conflict with capitalism, which dictates that markets should control economic direction. Ultimately communist believe that capitalism is overly exploitative and is simply imperialisms in a different form.
The other side of the spectrum is anti-Western ideology based on the opposition to secularism. This is especially prevalent in the Islamic world but also occurs in other highly conservative regions of the world. This is opposition is born out of the belief in the corrupting influence that western ideology has on their own societies. The fair is that a spread of secularism may erode the influence of the traditional religious authority and societal alignment.