How can the themes of rebellion and immaturity be used in a thesis statement for "A & P"?

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First, those are quality themes to be analyzing for this story. Finding supporting text for those themes shouldn't be a problem. Second, a thesis needs to make an argument. It shouldn't be a statement of fact, because then there isn't anything to argue for and try to prove. Third, I...

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First, those are quality themes to be analyzing for this story. Finding supporting text for those themes shouldn't be a problem. Second, a thesis needs to make an argument. It shouldn't be a statement of fact, because then there isn't anything to argue for and try to prove. Third, I think the themes of rebellion and immaturity can be tied together. In other words, present to your readers that those two themes are intricately woven together and are not two themes that are completely independent of each other. Keep in mind that Sammy is a fairly young individual. He's technically an adult; however, he's only nineteen. He hasn't been a full-fledged adult for that long, and that's why he kind of looks down at adults like Lengel.

Lengel's pretty dreary, teaches Sunday school and the rest, but he doesn't miss that much.

Sammy doesn't consider himself to be similar to Lengel, and Sammy is incapable of looking at the Queenie situation from Lengel's adult, managerial point of view. Sammy is immature, and that motivates him to rebel against how Lengel is acting toward the girls. Ultimately, Sammy's immature rebellion results in the loss of his job, and he receives zero gratitude from the girls. A possible thesis to help guide a paper in this direction could be something like the following:

"Although Sammy believes the girls will see his rebellious attitude as heroic, his actions do nothing more than to show readers just how immature he still is."

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One possible example of a thesis statement:

In the story "A & P," John Updike presents the growing pains of adolescence. Therefore, the main character displays the typical characteristics of teenage behavior such as rebellion, immaturity, and the need for individuality.

Focus on the theme of "growing up" through three distinct behavioral attitudes.  Sammy's attitude (in his first-person storytelling) is very distinct.  He comes across as someone who is attempting to tell a story with apathy, but it is clear that he wants people to take him seriously.  The main attitude he portrays, to me, is one of a teenager trying very hard to sound like an adult.  Therefore, I'm not sure that your thesis should only focus on Sammy.

The thesis suggestion above clarifies your ideas. However, to focus on "rebellion," "immaturity," and the "need for individuality" seems to point as much or even more to the girls who enter the store in their bathing suits. I might tweak it to say something like

In the story "A & P," John Updike sums up the growing pains of adolescence in just one afternoon.  Through the choices characters make and the reactions of others to those choices, the author shows that growing up is a mixture of rebellion, immaturity, and the desire for individuality.

This way, you can focus on each of the three attitudes you originally chose, but instead of limiting yourself to Sammy's actions, you can choose from the actions of virtually anyone in the store and even Sammy's family (who reacts to his quitting as "the sad part").  This allows you to stay with your original idea but provides more examples as proof.

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