Several groups suffered from tension following World War I. The growth of cosmopolitan cities gave rise to a changing culture that brought about a new role for women and a new sense of women's freedoms. However, rural cultures did not change in the same way, and a discrepancy between rural and urban cultures developed. These cultural issues were brought to the fore with the 1925 "Scopes Monkey Trial" in Tennessee. In this case, a teacher was accused of teaching evolution in contradiction with a state law that disallowed teaching evolution over the biblical account of creation. This trial highlighted the tensions between the modernist tradition and the more fundamentalist religious position.
In addition, racial tensions ran high after the war in reaction to the Great Migration, which was the influx of African Americans from the South to Northern cities during and after World War I. When white servicemen returned after the war, racial tensions were inflamed when they found women and African Americans had assumed their jobs during the war. In the years following the war, there was a regrowth in the KKK and there were many race riots, including a riot in Chicago in 1919 that caused the deaths of African Americans and whites and that led to the destruction of several African American homes.