There was not discovered a whole fossil, but only one finger of a child, in a cave in the Altai Mountains, in Asia, where it was believed that Neanderthals lived.
Researchers have extracted mitochondrial DNA from fossil's finger and they were surprised to see that the differences are so large, compared to Neanderthal and Homo sapiens. The discovery may be considered a new species. This suggests that perhaps there were more species of people, each evolving from primitive humans, who left Africa, at different moments in time and in the same place.
The hominid, whose finger was genetically examined, has lived in Asia, in the Altai Mountains, somewhere between 48,000 and 30,000 years ago. The first thing researchers did was to remove the possibility of verifying the DNA of bacteria that have infected the child, and not the DNA of the child. After they have established the true, researchers are increasingly confident that this was a new species of primitive people. Here, therefore, are three species of modern humans which existed at the same time and same place, in the Altai Mountains of Asia. In the same time, there were dwarves people, called Hobbits, Fluorisensis Homo on Flores Island, in Indonesia.
The next step for researchers is to extract DNA from the nucleus of the cell of the fossil. It will say more about that new species. The mitochondrial DNA which has been extracted so far, was from fossil's cells.