There are many disciplines that study intercultural communication and translation. These include anthropology, psychology, linguistics, business studies, and English. For example, the theory of "code-switching" is frequently discussed in English, that theory being that we adjust (or need to adjust) our use of language, depending on our audience, when we are communicating with people of another culture. Anthropologists and linguists have fascinating ideas about language and culture, one being that because each culure has its own metaphors, communication is hampered. Two authors you might find interesting to read are George Lakoff and Zoltan Kovecses. Another author who has interesting things to say on this issue is Stephen Pinker. If your school has access to the EBSCO or ERIC databases, using "intercultural communication" as a search term will elicit more articles and theories than you could read in a lifetime!