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Heralded as one of the greatest writers of American literature, Nathaniel Hawthorne did, indeed, employ literary techniques in his writing of The Scarlet Letter. Here are some examples from Chapter 13:
Parallelism (the repetition of words or phrases or other grammatical structures) is found in the following sentences:
She never battled with the public, bus submitted, uncompliningly, to its worst usage; she made no claim upon it, in requital for what she sufferd; she did not weigh upon its sympathies.
None so ready as she to give of her little substance to every demand of poverty; even though the bitter-hearted pauper threw back a gibe in requital of the food brought regularly to his door, or ....None so self devoted as Hester, when pertilence stalked through the town...
Metaphor (an implied comparison) is employed by Hawthorne when he writes of the rulers of the village who "were fortified in themselves by an iron famework of reasoning."
day by day, nevertheless, their sour and rigid wrinkles were relaxing into something which, in the due course of years, misght grow to be an expression of almost benevolence.
In the above passage, "sour and rigid wrinkles" imply the stern perspective of the leaders upon Hester. Another metaphor in the chapter appears as Hawthorne writes of the effect of the scarlet letter,
All the light and graceful foliage of her character had been withered up by this red-hot brand, and had long ago fallen away, leaving a bare and harsh outline...
The light and graceful foliage is a metaphor for Hester's hair, her face, her walk, her lovely figure. Shortly after this passage, Hawthorne writes of "men of the sword," a metaphor for soldiers, and ruthless people.
Personification (the assigning of human attributes to non-humans) comes in the last part of the seventh paragraph:
In her lonesome cottage by the sea shore, thoughts visited her, such as dared to enter no other dwelling in New England; shadowy guests, that would have been as perilous as demons to their entertainer, could they have been seen so much as knocking at her door.
The cottage is "Lonesome," and "Shadowy guests" is personification for the soldiers. There is also a simile in the last line: [the shadowy guests] would have been as perilous as demonds.
Finally, there are allusions (references to other places known. One such allusion is made to the "Puritan establishment and Anne Hutchinson as foundress."
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