I have to agree with your friends as well, the quote is internationalist in sentiment. The only qualifier I would give is that the quote was from Oscar Straus, one of Theodore Roosevelt's cabinet, and certainly Roosevelt would have subscribed to the views described in Post 4, believing that white Anglo-Saxons had a duty to spread and protect civilization. But Straus also worked in support of a League of Nations after World War I, and while I have been unable to ascertain the date of this quote, this sounds like it must have come from that effort. To make a larger point, I would like to emphasize as a history person that you often need to think about context when you try to characterize what a quote means.
Here is a link to a bit of information about Straus: