There is, of course, nothing that replaces reading a chapter for yourself! However, if you're looking for a summary of the chapter, I have provided my notes below:
- 1988: Pilkington illustrates that men gossip just as much as women do, but do so differently. Men's gossip "involves insults, challenges, and various kinds of negative behavior" while women's involves the "use of nurturing, polite, feedback-laden, cooperative talk." Regardless, both are acts of solidarity with members of the same gender.
- 1994: Haas notes that the Koasati language (Amerindian, originated in southwestern Louisiana) uses male and female pronunciations. Many other languages include these phonological differences, including the Gros Ventre language of the Northeast United States; however, only the Koasati includes "no such changeover in reporting or quoting."
1973: Lakoff demonstrates that certain words are more likely to be used by women than men in the English language and notes the "entrenched patterns of usage" of gender-based distinctions (i.e. actors versus actress).
1999: Romaine indicates that although there have been efforts to neutralize this language, gender-inclusive language doesn't necessarily reflect an understanding of the sexist basis behind this language. It is certainly possible to avoid gender distinctions in speech.
1998: Bradely determines that Yanyuwa, and Australian aboriginal language, includes dialects that are gender-based. While all children are raised with the female dialect, boys must eventually transition into the male dialect.
1975: Brend suggests that women more frequently use intonations of surprise and politeness than men. This includes phrasing answers with the intonation of a question.
2003: Mills argues that politeness "is not a property of utterances" and is instead "a set of practices or strategies which communities of practice develop, affirm, and contest"; the consequence of this is that not all communities agree on what politeness looks like, and thus, it can not be claimed that women are more likely to be polite in their language.
1993: James and Clark disrupt the notion that men are more likely to use interruptions to control speech, finding that "a small amount of evidence exists that females may use interruptions of the cooperative and rapport-building type to a greater extent."
1996: Coates examines the conversations of women, determining that women exchange stories, invite others to talk through questioning, and frequently repeat the words of others.
1996: Freed and Greenwood determine that men and women use "you know" at the same frequency and for the same reasons and that the portrayal of women as using this phrase more often is stereotypical.
1982: Maltz and Borker assert that North American men and women "come from different sociolinguistic sub-cultures" that result in miscommunication.
1990, 1993, 1994, 1998: Tanen claims that the socialization process involves gender-related activities, attitudes, and language. In other words, we learn to "act like boys and girls."