Given how many different parts of the world were colonized and then gained independence, many world literatures can be described as postcolonial. Modern Indian, African, Canadian, and Latin American literatures are often studied as postcolonial as are many subaltern literatures. Feminist analysis usually looks at postcolonial literatures to see ways in which colonialism was a patriarchal structure doubly oppressing women both as members of ethnic or national groups (e.g. lower-caste women in India, African women slaves) and as a marginalized gender. Thematically, critics look at how these doubly oppressed women respond by being complicit with their oppressors or by subverting oppression.