What are the themes in the novel from the perspective of children's literature?
I am not clear on what you are really asking, so perhaps you can repost your question and give us more specifics. However, I will try to answer what I think you are asking.
I do not believe this novel really fits the specific requirements for children's literature (usually applies to children up to age 12), but it could fit the category of young adult literature (ages 13-18). This is because of the issue of rape.
That being said, this novel can be considered a "coming of age novel" - fiction in which a young person grows up and reaches adulthood, discovering who he really is in the process. Amir starts out as a young boy in the novel, but this is merely to show his growth, both physically and spiritually. So that would be one theme - maturing into adulthood. Other themes that are important to this age group (YA fiction) would be family relationships (between Amir and Baba), loyalty to friends (Hassan and Amir), appreciating one's culture. The other themes - political corruption, abuse of power, etc. -- are more adult-like themes.
I suggest you read the "themes" section here on eNotes, at the link below, to see if you agree with me.